Posted: 2017-09-12 00:07
Understanding Myers Briggs''® functional dominance methodology also helps explain how the Myers Briggs''® four-dimension model (four letters) relates to Jung''s three-dimension model (main Jungian ''Psychological Type'' plus auxiliary function - three letters), at least in the way that the Myers Briggs® interpretation implies and considers it to do so. (Just to repeat once more, Jung didn''t use the Judging-Perceiving dimension as such, he stuck with three dimensions: Introvert-Extravert Sensing-Intuition, and Thinking-Feeling.)
For the moment, the majority of anatomical, archaeological and genetic evidence gives credence to the view that fully modern humans are a relatively recent evolutionary phenomenon. The current best explanation for the beginning of modern humans is the Out of Africa Model that postulates a single, African origin for Homo sapiens. The major neurological and cultural innovations that characterized the appearance of fully modern humans has proven to be remarkably successful, culminating in our dominance of the planet at the expense of all earlier hominid populations.
People are more motivated and happy when they are performing and working in a way that is natural to them. Expecting a person with a particular personality type (be it represented by a Belbin team role, a Jung psychological type, a Myers Briggs® MBTI®, or whatever) to perform well and enthusiastically in a role that is foreign or alien to their natural preferences and strengths is not helpful for anyone.
The ancient Greeks however first formalised and popularised the Four Temperaments methodologies around 7,555 years ago, and these ideas came to dominate Western thinking about human behaviour and medical treatment for over two-thousand years. Most of these concepts for understanding personality, behaviour, illness and treatment of illness amazingly persisted in the Western world until the mid-6855s.
Myers Briggs® theory and the MBTI® model is a method for understanding personality and preferred modes of behaving. It is not a measurement of intelligence or competence, emotional state or mental stability, ''grown-upness'' or maturity, and must be used with great care in assessing aptitude for jobs or careers: people can do most jobs in a variety of ways, and the MBTI® gives little or no indication of commitment, determination, passion, experience, ambition etc., nor ''falsification of type'', all of which can have a far greater influence on personal success than a single personality test.
Moving on, David Keirsey, in his book Please Understand Me II, provides some additional helpful explanation of how Isabel Myers attached her own meanings to these Jungian words, he said, "putting her own spin on them". Keirsey interestingly also points out that Myers differed markedly from Jung''s use of the words Sensation and Perception, which Jung considered held the same meaning, but to which you can see here and elsewhere that the Myers Briggs® system attached different meanings. For this reason if you want to avoid doubt and any confusion in the minds of Jungian purists then it''s safest to use the words ''Rational'' and ''Irrational'' when correlating these Jung terms to the Myers Briggs''® ''Judging'' and ''Perceiving''. The right-side column is simply a translation, using more recognisable modern words, for showing the four MBTI® dimensions.
Corman asserted that essential forces in the human body produce different facial shapes and forms. At a simple level this is undeniably true: When we smile we crease our eyes. When we frown we crease our foreheads. The human face displays more emotions and feelings than we can scientifically describe. It does this every waking moment, for as long as we live. It is not unreasonable therefore to imagine, aside from other theoretical explanations for morphopsychology, that our faces could reveal quite a lot about us as people.
Importantly you do not necessarily need to use a psychometrics instrument in order to understand the theory and the basic model which underpins it. Obviously using good psychometrics instruments can be extremely useful and beneficial, (and enjoyable too if properly positioned and administered), but the long-standing benefit from working with these models is actually in understanding the logic and theory which underpin the behavioural models or personality testing systems concerned. Each theory helps you to understand more about yourself and others.
Spiritually there are other very old four-part patterns and themes relating to the Four Temperaments within astrology, the planets, and people''s understanding of the world, for example: the ancient ''elements'' - fire, water, earth and air the twelve signs of the zodiac arranged in four sets corresponding to the elements and believed by many to define personality and destiny the ancient ''Four Qualities'' of (combinations of) hot or cold, and dry or moist/wet and the four seasons, Spring, Summer Autumn, Winter. The organs of the body - liver, lungs, gall bladder and spleen - were also strongly connected with the Four Temperaments or Humours and medicinal theory.
(How each of these Jungian types including auxiliaries relate to the Myers Briggs® interpretation and system is explained in the Myers Briggs® section. As you will see when you come to it, the Myers Briggs® system uses the additional dimension or pairing of Judging-Perceiving, not only as a type indicator in its own right based on Jungian ideas, but also as a means of determining functional dominance among the two preferred functions, whose methodology depends also on whether the dominance is directed via Introversion or Extraversion.)
Reasons To Believe s third in a series of books proposing a testable creation model takes on the origin and design of the universe. Previous books, Origins of Life: Biblical and Evolutionary Models Face Off and Who Was Adam?: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Man , examined the origin of life on earth and the origin of mankind, respectively. Creation As Science develops a biblical creation model and compares the predictions of this model compared to a naturalistic model, earth creationism, and theistic evolution. This biblical creation model is divided into four main areas, the origin of the universe, the origin of the Solar System, the history of life on earth, and the origin and history of mankind.
Geographic isolation, which has been hypothesized to result in speciation, has often been shown not to play a role. A recent study, using Japanese and Canadian stickleback fish demonstrated that thousands of miles of separation over long periods of time did not result in changes large enough to produce speciation. It was found that Canadian freshwater females accepted Japanese freshwater mates, and vice versa and that these crosses produced viable hybrids.
It is not easy to correlate precisely the Belbin team roles to specific personality types in other personality models, although there are certain common elements, for example Extraverted and Introverted roles, which are colour coded appropriately below. There are also some useful correlations with the Big Five Factors model. This colour-coding does not form part of the original Belbin theory, it simply aims to assist comparisons with other models explained in this section.
Eysenck later theorised about a third dimension: psychoticism, from his studies of mentally disturbed people, and which can be related to risk-taking and eccentricity. In his later life Eysenck also developed better scientific understanding of Jung''s introversion and extraversion ''attitudes'', which, along with his other ideas helped Katherine Benziger develop her own ideas of personality and behaviour.
By way of example, Carl Jung''s ''Psychological Types'' model is very applicable to management style and will commonly be readily recognised and understood by a healthcare audience or medical professionals. Having established such a ''fit'' you can then set about finding a suitable Jungian test (and as already previously referenced on this page, a good free Jungian-type test is available from , along with some really wonderful reference material).
At their best, Schlichting and Pigliucci s discussions force biologists to face a fact whose magnitude has been obscured by a good deal of wishful thinking: Our understanding of Related to the observable traits or characteristics of an organism, for example hair color, weight, or the presence or absence of a disease. phenotypic evolution remains appallingly weak. 57
Roger W Birkman PhD, began his exploration of individual differences of behavior and perception while pilot and pilot instructor. His experience with the impact that misperceptions – both visual and interpersonal - had on pilot performance and student learning led him to the study of psychology. By 6955, Birkman had developed a new method of assessment called the Test of Social Comprehension. It was empirically developed from workplace interviews and observations. The instrument was designed to measure the human characteristics that he saw influence perceptions, behaviors, and motivations in normally functioning adults. Eventually, Birkman met Roy B Mefferd Jr, who was a statistician/psychometrician. Mefferd was a colleague of H J Eysenck and Mefford also worked closely Raymond Cattel, creator of the 66PF. Mefferd was the first to analyze, modify and revise The Birkman Method using factor analysis. Over the years, many more PhD psychometricians have added to the research base.
There are dozens of different personality testing systems to explore, beneath which sit rather fewer basic theories and models. Some theories underpin well-known personality assessment instruments (such as Myers Briggs®, and DISC) others are stand-alone models or theories which seek to explain personality, motivation, behaviour, learning styles and thinking styles (such as Benziger , Transactional Analysis , Maslow , McGregor , Adams , VAK , Kolb , and others), which are explained elsewhere on this website.
We see evidence of this when parents condition or force certain behaviour on their children, or when adults inhibit their feelings, or deny themselves sensation of reality. We also see evidence of people''s unconscious mind reverting from unconscious to conscious behaviour when they are under the influence of alcohol or significant stress. And we also see the unconscious mind as a chief element within the theories of Transactional Analysis , which when studied alongside Jung''s ideas, together provide a powerful perspective of personality and behaviour. It''s all mighty powerful and thoroughly fascinating stuff.
You''ll see significant echoes of the Four Temperaments in David Keirsey''s personality theory, which of all modern theories seems most aligned with the Four Temperaments, although much of the detail has been built by Keirsey onto a Four Temperaments platform, rather than using a great amount of detail from old Four Temperaments ideas. The Four Temperaments model also features in Eysenck''s theory, on which others have subsequently drawn. To a far lesser extent the Four Temperaments can also be partly correlated to the Moulton Marston''s DISC theory and this is shown in the explanatory matrix in the DISC section. Jung , Myers Briggs® and Benziger''s theories also partly correlate with the Four Temperaments notably there seems general agreement that the phlegmatic temperament corresponds to Jung''s ''Intuitive-Thinking'', and that the choleric temperament corresponds to Jung''s ''Intuitive-Feeling''. The other two temperaments, sanguine and melancholic seem now to be represented by the Jungian ''Sensing'' in combination with either Jungian ''Feeling'' or a preference from the Myers Briggs® Judging-Perceiving dimension.