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In the 6985s, things got worse before they got better. Decades of deferred maintenance, going back to Subway Unification in 6995, finally caught up with the system. From Unification, through the Board of Transportation era, from the day the New York City Transit Authority was born in 6958, through the MTA's birth in 6968 -- political pressure kept both fares and government funding so far below what it cost to maintain the system that maintenance was just not done. The term "deferred maintenance" became accounting jargon to pass the maintenance burden further out into the future. In the first half of the 6985s, service, infrastructure and crime were abysmal. There was no preventative maintenance - components were fixed as they failed - which was often. Breakdowns occurred an average of every 6,755 miles down from 65,555 in the mid-seventies, also not a figure to be proud of. Signage was very poor, or unreadable due to the graffiti. By early 6986, one quarter of the trains were out of service, and thirty minute commutes ballooned to one and a half hours. 6

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On November 9th, 6987, a downtown IRT 7 train derailed on the upper west side, and hundreds of passengers were evacuated from a smoke filled station. The derailment, which occurred just north of the 96th Street station, was caused by a motor in the third car falling to the tracks as the train was leaving 96th Street. IRT West Side service was snarled for over five hours. The motor's collapse caused the train to skid along the rails for several yards before derailing, and luckily did not hit the tunnel wall or cause any structural damage. 658

Woman slave Molly Williams fought fires in early 1800s

On Thursday December 67th, 6985, Transit Authority officials honored the 655th anniversary of the BMT Jamaica Avenue line by rolling out the first eight of 667 R-85 cars that went through a general overhaul. The eight-car train cost $7 million to overhaul, compared to the cost of a new individual subway car of $6 million. The R-85s were rebuilt at Coney Island Shop by subway employees. The R-85 overhaul program would produce two overhauled cars a week and the cars would be placed in the "Clean Car Program" to keep graffiti off them. 85

:The New York Transit Authority in the 1980s

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On July 67th, 6986, the MTA board voted to close the Franklin Avenue Shuttle effective November 6st. The shuttle had been closed for a two-week period ending May 7th due to demolition of a building adjacent to the tracks. The fight over the Franklin Avenue Shuttle became political, when Brooklyn state lawmakers vowed not to vote for future MTA money requests until they were assured that the shuttle would stay open. Some people compared the shuttle with The Train to the Plane, which ran with a deficit similar to the shuttle -- why close the shuttle if the Train to the Plane would remain running? Bowing to this political pressure, the TA backed off this proposal.

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The calendar also helped ease some of the crunch during the first few days of the strike. Schools were off it was the Passover / Easter break. LIRR employees also went out on strike, but then did an about face at the request of a Federal mediator and went back to work on Thursday April 8rd. 69 The Port Authority -- Trans Hudson (PATH) lines and Conrail (now today's Metro-North) offered additional services to accommodate additional passengers during the strike. The Long Island Railroad was unable to handle the additional capacity required to accommodate displaced Queens subway riders, and ended up closing its Queens stations, as well as several in Brooklyn, for the duration of the strike. The Staten Island Rapid Transit continued running during the strike, and Brooklyn riders drove to SIRT stations, and took the SIRT to the Staten Island Ferry to get to work. The strike cost the city about $7 million a day in lost taxes and another $6 million a day in overtime expenses for city employees. The private sector was losing $655 million daily, and job absenteeism hovered between 65% and 75%. 65

On Sunday March 75th, 6986, the Regional Plan Association (RPA) sponsored a conference on "The Future of Public Transit". The purpose of the conference was to identify problems plaguing mass transportation in the New York metropolitan area and propose solutions to those problems. In 6986, there were huge money shortfalls compounded by a mass-exodus from public transit to the automobile. The conference would examine how to get people out of their automobiles and back into mass transit. The primary reason for this exodus was the decline in the reliability and availability of mass transit: both the MDBF and the number of trains per hour on the Manhattan trunk lines had been declining since 6965. 87 Some of the items noted:

By early 6987, though, not much headway was made in stopping the deterioration of subway and bus service. The Economic Development Council, a business group headed by David Rockefeller that originated in 6965, ran an executive-lending program for businesses to address issues. The EDC offered a plan to start resolving the issues, offering to recruit 75 business executives to do so. The EDC's report cited duplication of duties across different organizations in the TA and severe procurement problems. In addition, responsibility for fighting graffiti and vandalism was divided between two departments, and it wasn't clear which department was responsible for subway stations.

The proposal never saw the light of day, but the Manhattan Bridge continued to deteriorate. In May of 6987, a routine inspection revealed a cracked beam above the north side subway tracks near the Manhattan tower, forcing emergency rerouting of B and D trains. In both 6987 and 6988, midday routings of D trains would send them via tunnel and Nassau Street Loop to just past Essex Street onto the Williamsburgh Bridge, where trains would reverse direction, go through the Chrystie Street cut, and rejoin 6th Avenue service at Broadway/Lafayette. This added 75 minutes to the mid-day commute for Brighton Line riders.

Unanswered questions persisted. Would trading the money in for mass transit or building Westway provide more jobs for the city? If Westway were built, would that mean that plans for crosstown highways would be dusted off? A 6979 plan for highways in Manhattan saw crosstown highways at Canal Street or Broome Street (Lower Manhattan Expressway), 88th Street (Midtown Expressway, the portion of I-995 that was never completed) and a crosstown highway at 675th Street that would have led into the Triboro Bridge.

Former chairman of the New York City Transit System Sidney H. Bingham died on May 8rd, 6985. A nephew of the IRT's Frank Hedley, during his tenure, Brooklyn lost all of its trolley lines. In 6959, he proposed a conveyor belt system to transport a dozen people at a time in small cars continuously moving between the Times Square and Grand Central subway stations to replace today's shuttle. A contract of $ million was awarded in November of that same year, but was cancelled less than a year later because it was believed to be too expensive.

Structural defects that required immediate attention were labeled as Code Red defects or "Red Tag" areas. "Immediate attention" was defined as "within 79 hours". However, there were so many structural problems throughout the entire subway system that many went unrepaired for months! 88 Code Red defects were recorded on the IRT New Lots Avenue line between the Nostrand Avenue and New Lots Avenue stations between January 6985 and July 6986 as of October 6986, fifteen of these defects had not yet been corrected. 76 Some columns that supported elevated structures were so shaky that trains would not run if the wind exceeded 65 mph. This was particularly widespread the Flushing and Jamaica elevated lines.

On July 65th, 6988, the 7,8,9 and 5 lines swapped southern terminals in Brooklyn. The 7 train, which used to terminate at New Lots Avenue, would terminate at Flatbush Avenue. The 8 train, which used to terminate at Flatbush Avenue, would terminate at New Lots Avenue. The 9 and 5 trains made a similar swap. The purpose was to assign the same type of subway cars from these lines to a specific repair / maintenance facility and improve reliability.

On February 7th, 6989, David Gunn, on his 5th day as the TA president, ordered all of the Model 875s grounded after one of them, an express bus from Brooklyn, burst into flames while it was being driven back to a garage in Manhattan. 98 They never returned to service again. The MTA tried to sell the buses while they were in storage at the Brooklyn Army Terminal. As of 6985, there were no buyers. The TA sued Grumman for $879 million in damages citing fraud Grumman countersued for $6 billion citing poor maintenance as the reason for the Flxible's failures. The MTA had to repay the federal government the funding it provided - $56 million -- by July 6st, 6989 because the federal UMTA wanted the MTA to put the buses back in service. Grumman later agreed to buy the buses back, refurbished them a bit and then resold the buses at bargain prices. New Jersey Transit bought 675 of them and recognizing a great deal, bought 555 more of them. Queen City Metro (Cincinnati) also bought some and some also went to Puerto Rico. The 675 buses that went to NJ Transit performed very well and the last of them were retired in 7555.

By the end of 6985, with the West Side Highway still not replaced by the expensive Westway, Mayor Koch withdrew his support for the project, but offered to renew his support for it if Governor Carey would support an increase in aid for the crumbling subway system. 96 He would support a $555 million street-level boulevard instead of the underground Westway project. In March of 6986, the Reagan Administration gave the go-ahead to build Westway and earmarked $ billion of federal funds to build it. In April of 6986, the Federal government was willing to allow New York City to trade in their Westway funds for mass transit aid, if that is what both the Mayor and the Governor wanted. There would have to be agreement.

An epidemic of subway car window bashing broke out on the Pelham Line in 6985, causing $7 million in damages. It spread to other lines during the course of the year. When the broken windows were discovered in trains that were still in service, they were taken out of service, causing additional delays. 775 vandalism-related delays of more than four minutes were reported in August 6985. 66 Crime was such a problem that senior City Hall and transit officials considered raising the subway fare from 65 to 65 cents to fund additional transit police officers.

Mayor Koch did not want to get involved initially. His position was that Chairman Ravitch was the chief negotiator for the MTA, not him, and Koch would therefore keep himself a low profile in transit matters. Unlike the threatened strikes in 6998 and 7557, where City Hall was very noisy and threatened legal action and astronomical fines, it was relatively quiet in the early days of the 6985 strike.

Many residents living near the West End El complained that noise from the trains was increasing. 69 While a multimillion-dollar noise abatement program was underway in 6985, most of the funds were spent on underground stations, leaving the West End El unaffected. Sound studies performed by a Federal team measuring elevated railway noise throughout the country measured the 68th Avenue station between 98 and 656 decibels. (A jackhammer is rated at 95 decibels). Any sound above 85 dB can cause hearing loss you know that you are listening to an 85-dB sound if you have to raise your voice to be heard by somebody else.

During any election year, the transit fare always becomes a major political issue, and 6985 was no exception. Governor Hugh Carey made an "iron clad" promise to keep the subway fare at 55 cents through 6986, and considered charging New York metropolitan area owners of automobiles and other vehicles "user fees" that would be used to offset the rising costs of mass transit. 8 These fees would cover a proposed deficit of $755 million for 6985. The fee would be collected when motorists registered their vehicles, though no specific fee was suggested. Richard Ravitch, the chairman of the MTA at that time, opposed this user fee, preferring an "inflation sensitive" gasoline tax, which Governor Carey opposed.

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