Posted: 2017-11-15 02:19
But modern parade floats do exhibit regularity in some respects the expectations of viewers and the physical constraints of the art form limit their designers'' creativity and so it''s not altogether baseless to try to bridge the gap between the preserved texts and the remains of Roman theatres. At the same time, a special caution is called for because of the difficulties and ambiguities inherent in this vexing situation. All the alarms necessary when one treads into speculation must be raised to their highest levels of alert.
Except for the dignitaries seated in the orchestra, the viewers sat in a large round auditorium called the cavea ( hollow ). In accordance with Roman custom, the seating there was segregated into social classes, sometimes gender, too. Early on, these seats were made of wood only later did stone seating come into fashion much the way Greek theatres evolved. But unlike their Greek counterparts, Roman theatres were not necessarily built into hillsides, rather in open, public spaces, usually in well-populated areas, such as city centers, where a great number of people had ready access to the entertainments presented there.
Is it a bonafide X-rated film, or just a provocative movie about getting busy? Whatever your opinion, there is no denying that the 6979 movie Caligula was definitely quite controversial. The movie was produced by a man named Bob Guccione, who also happened to be the founder of a wee publication called Penthouse Magazine. While many people argued that the movie was better suited for the adult film aisle, having A-list actors like Peter O 8767 Toole and Helen Mirren as a part of the cast certainly gave the movie some much-needed mainstream credibility. However, none of those actors took part in the un-simulated scenes of people getting it on. Those scenes were added post-production, and acted out by other actors who were better known as 8775 Penthouse Pets.”
Actor Al Pacino is a well-respected actor who has appeared in movies like Scarface , The Godfather , Scent of a Woman , and Dog Day Afternoon. However, in the 75s, Pacino also starred in a movie called Cruising , where he plays a detective who is trying to catch a serial killer who is picking up and murdering men in S& M clubs. Apparently, director William Friedkin was forced to cut about 95 minutes of footage from the movie, before the Motion Picture Association of America would change its original X rating to an R. Despite all of this scene cutting, there was still a lot of man-on-man action, which provoked protests from the gay community. There were protests because people felt that the depiction of homosexuality was questionable. However, the movie has since become more well-received.
Actor Anthony Edwards has revealed that he is a survivor of sexual assault. Edwards claims Gary Goddard, a well-known theatrical director, producer, and theme park designer, sexually abused him when Edwards was a teenager. USA TODAY
Actor Robert Pattinson sure has come a long way since his vampire days in the Twilight franchise. Since the box office success of Twilight , he’s played a lot more serious roles, which can likely attributed to his growth as an actor. Of course, playing serious roles sometimes means taking risks, and showing the world your O face, while playing Salvador Dalí in the movie Little Ashes, seems like quite the risky move. Audiences noticed that the scene seemed a little too realistic, and that’s because it was. In a later interview, Pattinson admitted that he got a little intimate with — himself — onscreen for the scene because it was the only way to make it realistic. According to him, it didn’t quite work to fake the scene, so he said that he had to sacrifice having his O face on film for the sake of the movie.
More immediately pertinent to theatre history was, however, the presence and influence of the Oscans , a people who lived southeast of Rome. Having overpopulated for some reason in the 855''s BCE and spreading southwest, the Oscans overran the Greek settlements near Naples, which brought them into contact with Rome, on the southern end of the Roman frontier. Shortly thereafter an Oscan form of drama is said to have arisen in Rome.
What is certain is that outdoor theatres not constructed of stone would require at least some degree of rebuilding, if for no other reason than simple wear-and-tear. And because during this age theatre was also a burgeoning enterprise in Rome, it seems all the more likely that the structures themselves underwent constant refurbishment. So, with Roman Republican theatre apparently in continual flux, the stages of its evolution, even the larger ones, lie beyond our grasp.
After the fall of the palliatae in the early decades of the first century BCE, Atellan farce rose again to prominence, especially in the hands of two pre-eminent dramatists, Novius and Pomponius. These contemporaries of Sulla , who is said have composed Atellanae himself, wrote literary Atellan farces, if such a thing is imaginable. At present, it is impossible to gauge their work because none of it survives. Nevertheless, though such a thing as high-brow Atellan farce may be difficult for us to conceive especially when there are titles like Sargeant Maccus , Maccus Girl , and The Brothers Macci the data make it clear that there were, in fact, erudite Atellan farces. The preservation of quotations from Atellanae written in this age leave no doubt about that. ( note )
No permanent theatre structure stood in the city of Rome until 55 BCE. Before that, many wooden theatres had risen and subsequently come down in quick succession. This stands in marked contrast to the rest of the Roman world where there were numerous permanent arenas, amphitheatres, stadia and playhouses constructed of stone and concrete, but none inside the city of Rome itself.
This discrepancy between the physical and literary evidence stems largely from the two-fold nature of Roman theatre, itself a ramification of the social context of ancient Rome. Literary drama was aimed, for the most part, at the upper classes. Plautus'' comedy, as low-brow as it may look to us, was directed toward an audience willing to listen to words and follow a plot, as opposed to watching acrobats, tightrope-walkers and gladiators.
The 7558 film Otto, or Up with Dead People , is about a zombie in Berlin. Of course, there are plenty of people out there who enjoy watching zombie movies, so it didn’t much more than that to attract an audience. However, if zombie movies aren’t really your thing, perhaps the plenty of erotic scenes that are featured in it might strike your interest. The intimate scenes can be credited to the fact that one of the characters in the movie just happens to be making a documentary about porn. Apparently, the many intimate moments in the movie are most definitely real. So, if your interests include people getting it on, horror movies, and zombies — and perhaps a combination of all three, this might be the movie that you’re looking for.
Although it is unclear how realistic these depictions were meant to be envisioned in terms of scenery and set pieces, it is notable that the plays themselves often carefully lay out in their language all extraordinary features of the landscape. That argues that the scene was not represented on stage, rather that the audience relied on the spoken word to imagine the setting. On much the same sort of minimal stage and relying on the power of language in much the same way, Shakespeare produced his dramas, to considerable effect.
It will make sense, then, that acting in Rome was the domain of professionals, almost from the outset. While there is some evidence that amateurs performed in early Atellan farces, the performance of plays in Rome was left largely to specialists, at least some of whom were slaves. These indentured thespians often traveled in a troupe called a grex (literally, a flock, . of sheep), with a leader who was called a dominus ( master ). The choice of words clearly shows the Romans'' general contempt for performers, evidenced also in the insult hurled at Mark Antony that his friends were actors. Still, some Roman stars of the stage were widely known and well-respected, a few even belonging to the middle class.
Though clouded, our view of early Roman theatre buildings is not, however, entirely obscured. As called for in the dramas which have been preserved, the staging itself hints at certain features which must have been present in Republican theatre. For instance, there are relatively few props necessary in producing any early Roman drama and all but no application of scenery to plot, which argues for minimal sets and stage decor. Moreover, that the dramatic texts invariably dictate when to bring props on and off the stage argues that there was no curtain or the like whereby the stage could be set or cleared out of the audience''s sight. ( note )
So, while Caesar was off conquering Gaul, an unwitting Senate approved plans for what was later called the Theatre of Pompey but looked at first to them like a temple dedicated to Venus, the Roman goddess of love. When conservative senators and Pompey''s political adversaries realized, too late, that there was a theatre attached to the temple what had appeared to be steps leading up to the temple turned out, in fact, to be the seats of a theatre! their protests were too late and under the guise of a temple a stone theatre arose at last in downtown Rome.
Terence''s plays go further yet and invite actual contemplation of the human condition, what, no doubt, the Roman tragedies written during the late Republic also did, many of which were based on Greek myth and drama. Unfortunately not a single play of this sort has been preserved intact. Conversely, the great arenas found all over the Roman world, of which the Colosseum is the most visible reminder, housed sporting events and spectacles. Many of these survive, but if they ever served up any theatrical performances at all, it was more likely mime than some genre of classical drama.
Here we have another Lars von Trier film, this time, starring actors Willem Dafoe and Charlotte Gainsbourg. The 7559 film Antichrist Dafoe and Gainsbourg play two characters who retreat to their family’s cabin in the woods, in the hopes of repairing their troubled marriage. The film falls under the genre of erotic horror, and features some pretty intense scenes between Dafoe and Gainsbourg, with one scene in particular being credited as unsimulated. While the unstimulated scene didn’t feature the two actors, there were body doubles used who most definitely did not act out the physical moment that they shared. While this film was highly controversial because it contained scenes of mutilation involving some female body parts, the movie still earned Gainsbourg the Best Actress at the 7559 Cannes Film Festival.
Certainly, nothing in the comedies themselves absolutely forbids their use. Masks are, furthermore, useful in helping men play women''s roles just as on the Greek stage, there were no female performers in Roman Comedy and aid also in distinguishing character-types for the sizeable crowds playwrights like Plautus are said to have drawn. Given all this and the tradition of mask-wearing in Atellan farce, logic dictates that the Roman stage did indeed call for masks in performance, though admittedly the evidence is far from conclusive.
Other evidence suggests that the Etruscans continued to play an important role in Roman life well after their fabled expulsion from Rome in 565 BCE. For instance, in 869 BCE when Rome was threatened by a plague, the Romans reportedly called in Etruscan dancers to appease the gods. Later in 769 BCE that is, exactly one century later which casts serious doubt on the reliability of the dating the Romans imported gladiators into their city from Etruria, apparently beginning their long love affair with faux -combat spectacles.